Metastatic spread of cancer cells is the main cause of death of breast cancer patients, and elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying this process is a major focus in cancer research. Here we give a progress report on how mouse models have contributed to our understanding of the molecular processes underlying breast cancer metastasis and on how such experimentation can open new avenues to the development of innovative cancer therapy. Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed form of cancer and the second leading cause of death in Western women [ 1 ]. Death, and most of the complications associated with breast cancer, are due to metastasis developing in regional lymph nodes and in distant organs, including bone, lung, liver, and brain [ 1 , 2 ]. As in many other metastatic cancer types, specific molecular changes occurring within both the tumor cells and the tumor microenvironment contribute to the detachment of tumor cells from the primary tumor mass, invasion into the tumor stroma, intravasation into nearby blood vessels or lymphatics, survival in the bloodstream, extravasation into and colonization of the target organ and, finally, metastatic outgrowth [ 3 , 4 ].
Nontransgenic models of breast cancer
An Orthotopic Mouse Model of Spontaneous Breast Cancer Metastasis | Protocol
Enter your email address and we'll send you a link to reset your password. See the Evidence section for more information. The Gail Model is one of several risk assessment models that can help determine the absolute 5 year risk and lifetime risk of developing breast cancer. It helps determine which risk-reduction options—medical chemoprevention with tamoxifen , surgical prophylactic mastectomy or lifestyle changes only—are most appropriate for individual patients by weighing risks and benefits of intervention versus likelihood of developing cancer. Please fill out required fields. He is a former president of the American Statistical Association.
Breast Cancer Risk Prediction Models
Breast cancer metastatic mouse models are experimental approaches in which mice are genetically manipulated to develop a mammary tumor leading to distant focal lesions of mammary epithelium. Recent ameliorations in maneuvering the mouse genome have provided the technology to induce mammary cancers in mice arising from genetic mutations that have been identified in human cancer. This means models can be generated based upon molecular lesions consistent with the human disease. Metastasis is a process of migration of tumour cells from the primary cancer site to a distant location where the cancer cells form secondary tumors. Metastatic breast cancer represents the most devastating attribute of cancer and it is considered an advanced-stage event.
Numerous models have been developed to address key elements in the biology of breast cancer development and progression. No model is ideal, but the most useful are those that reflect the natural history and histopathology of human disease, and allow for basic investigations into underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. We describe two types of models: those that are directed toward early events in breast cancer development hyperplastic alveolar nodules [HAN] murine model, MCF10AT human xenograft model ; and those that seek to reflect the spectrum of metastatic disease murine sister cell lines 67, , 4T07, 4T1.